Writing a WordPress Restoration script

WordPress sites get hacked all the time, because the typical WordPress blogger install 100’s of shitty plugins and rarely updates their site. On the one hand, it’s great that WordPress has empowered so many people to begin blogging without requiring the ‘hard’ technical skills, on the other it just gives criminals a large number of potential victims.

Two years ago, when I studied the details of phishing attacks that targeted Maybank and RHB, I found that attackers use compromised WordPress sites to host their phishing content. They’d first hack into a seemingly random WordPress website, host their phishing content there, and then blast out emails to unsuspecting victims with links to pointing back to their hacked bounty. If the hack works they’d get free username and passwords, and if they were ever caught, most evidence would point to the unsuspecting WordPress site owner.

So if you have a WordPress site (like me), chances are you’re in the cross-hairs of hackers already, and securing your site is the responsible thing to do.

In general WordPress sites should be:

  • Updated Automatically
  • Use a minimal number of plugins
  • Use plugins only from reputable publishers
  • Use themes only from reputable publishers–and have only one theme in the install directory
  • Employ strong passwords for the admin & user
  • Have the permissions of the underlying folders set accordingly (i.e.CHMOD them all)

But even if you took all precautions to hardened your site, there’s always a possibility of it getting hacked. No security is perfect, and you should look into backups–backup often and to a separate location. That way, a compromised site can be rebuilt, even if it were defaced. The last thing you want is to lose your precious design and data, because some one installed a shitty plugin over the weekend.

Today, I’ll walk through a short bash script I wrote to backup (and restore) a WordPress installation from scratch. It took me quite a while to write this (partly because I have no experience with Bash scripts), but I thought it would be good to walkthrough the details of the script and what it does.

The full script is available on github here, and the usage instructions will be maintained there. The write-up below describes code the first production release, linked here, even though I’ve since updated the scripts to include some modifications, and as we speak I’m just about the release version 1.2.

So here we go…

Special Thanks

The following 3 folks, were greatly influential in the writing of the script, listed in no particular order. No to mention, the wonderful folks at stackoverflow that helped tremendously as well.

Thanks to Andrea Fabrizi for the awesome DropboxUploader script
Thanks to Ben Kulbertis for the awesome Cloudflare update script
Thanks to Peteris.Rocks for inspiring me with his Unattended WordPress Installation script

Pre-Requisites

As a pre-requisite to all this, I made the following decisions.

The back ups would be stored in DropBox– Dropbox has free options (up to 2GB) and has versioning by default.All your backups are versioned and kept for 30 days (not just the latest upload, which gets destroyed if you’re hit by malware). Doing this on AWS requires extra work, which I wasn’t prepared to do, and AWS has no free tier for S3 storage.

Also, I use CloudFlare to maintain the DNS. It’s optional of course, but I needed a DNS provider that had an API, and they were the logical choice. This allowed the script to update your DNS as well.

Finally, the script assumes a standard LAMP stack, i.e. Linux (specifically Ubuntu 16.04), Apache , MySql and PHP. PHP is enforced by WordPress itself so that’s fine.But the ‘trend’ these days is to have NGINX instead of Apache, and MariaDB instead of MySQL. I kept things in ‘classic’ mode for now, I may revisit in the future. Continue reading